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TECHNICAL PLMNING MONO&RAPH No. k 


















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PXiMNINCJ STANDARDS FOR NUMBER OF AIRCRAFT 








y/y TO BE BASED AT AIRPORTS 














SAN FRANCISCO DEPARTMENT OF CITY PLANNING 




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Describes the range of numbers for private aircraft 




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(from 100 to 4-50) recommended by various authorities 








to be based at a local or secondary airport, and 








indicates the bases for the recommended standards 




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Prepared by: 
















Howard 3, Lapin 








Planning Research and Administration Division 
















M .136 








314p 






November 12, l^K^ 








PROPERTY 








OF THE 








DEPARTMENT C? CITY PLANNING 








CITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO 



SAN FRANCISCO 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

INFERENCE 
BOOK 



Not lo be taken from the Library 



.. .r.Vr'.. .2.T {F COT FLAJ]. City end County of San Francloco 



TaSHHICAL fUinimO miOGPJlPH 



PI ^ ^ Fai NlTiBSl OF /JRCUAPT TO HE 



SAN FRANCISCO PUBLIC LIBRARY 




3 1223 03713 4617 



Describes the range of nuirbcrs Tor private airci*aft 
(fron 100 to 450) recoicrriended by various euthoritios 
to be based at a local or sQcondary air port and 
indicates tiie bases for the recofscicsnded standards* 



Pre;;ared by: 

Howard S, Lapin, Planning Rosoarch and Adminlstr/ition Division 



12 IJovcnbsr, Y)h^ 

PROPERTY 

CF THE 

DEPART^■:ENT C: CXTi R " 



D REF 387.736 L314p 

Lapin, Howard S. 

Planning standards f 
number of aircraft 
[1948] 



3 1223 03713 4617 



-a fco autoniobiiea. And as the greatest utility oi' roaQs aiid nigjiw 
i realizsd when they are 3 e partite::! by function into Icral r 

■'ti^rtrl and hl^rVitvs';^;. so nlrports become ox' the nreal.-, :.■ . ... 
waen tney ai'e designed and used for a paTtlcular typa of use. -<<-. 
of this fsct,, the present t:i'end in aviation i s toward specialization 
of airpr-*^'. rhe iiiajor trariaport flelas set lanoing rulea sue 
che alovvyp, non-cor-imercial aircratt v/iil use fields specifically ae 
6d for such flying.- 

A i r port CI ass if j cat i on 

In recognition of this specialization of aiit-port uscj 
C.A.A* has classified airports by 3l.ze and ths function of the aire 
v;hich these fields serve. This clai slf icat ion is possibla, sincv 
cienor&l. the take-off runway require nents of present convanticna] 
craft vary fairly proportlomiliy with their yvoBs weight and hor: 
'i'he classifications shown In the acc. ompanyinf^ tsble &re those «?iver 
tho C.-^A -anual Airport L-sslgn, vvi'ich was issued Juno .k. iP-tG onri 
supersedes those given in the /iianual published April 1, 1944 

Airport Capacity 

Gonsidertible attention hafc-. oeen /-^Iven to the question c 
port capacity, as new technological aviation developments are r - 
changing the current concepts of this subject. Tho question is y. 
tlcularly oressin;^ in metropolitan regions fiuch as that surroo- 
oan x-ranclsco cay, Dwcause the u.^.^ of the lond is 30 in* ■ ' 
aviat.lon development in the future may bo retarded unless 
tion is ,.';iveh in planning; and design to the possibility- 
tion of r-egional airport capacities 



2 

TbG first critsi'ionor airport design is that of sal'oty, 
it Is this factor v/hich is therefore the oritne ccnsidoriition in 
aeterniining airport capacities.. The decision to be m&de is, bharc- 
i?ore, "What is the maxiyrium number of aircraft which can safely uso 
each type, of fields Thus, the '.l j roitation of an aix'fi-slri 
iiraim nuinber of aircraft operations allowfible psr houro. This irajdOar 
will -/ary dependlnr^ on the trainirj/i; of the pilots, the intercommun- 
ication between pilots and the, degre^o of tower or field control '--^ 
speed.3 of the aircraft, and visibility and other motoorologicai con- 
ditions. F5ut standards for plannin;--, ryurposes can be dstormined in 
aach cype of oporatj.on on the basd-s of past operating ej'^per ience . 

Tne lirrdtation of a field with radio tov/er control serving 
t^an^3port aircraft is 60 moveirients piir hour per runY^ay under condi- 
tions of .-pod visibility-, .n :■'lO^^?.^ri«nt is constituted by either :•. . . 
ing or a fcakaoff. 

The do termination of tho limitation of a personal flyint^ 
airport «;itnout to'a'er control is &lso based on the consideration of 
the raaxS.nmn safo number of aircraft movsments p>er hour, bub this num- 
ber mist bo correlated with tho number of aircraft owners who fl:- 
r,ijLe peak hour of the peak day. Oii the bawls of operating expc-i' 

the following design standards havo been detorrained with the advico 

r0pr6scnt the latost, thinking of 
of officers of the State Aoronautics Coiimission ano^/the C. A. A. Air 

Planning Soot ion. 

?Jaximuni N 'amber 
Airport Class of ftascd Aircraft 

Single Runway . imvpy 

1 150 300 

2 175 

3 175 ■'01 



• . iii Cisco and Oa^'lixnr^ 
'.ered that the new caater-tyoe 

j^flase airpor '"otinn and b.a©i/ 



Ae del'ined by the Civii A(5ronautios Adailriistratior* 
In " Alitor t De3ls\7,'< June 13, ipii-S 



Clasv Glass 

j-'e signal: ion 



JL-.' 



Hlniuu 



ii. 



Personal 



Secondary 



Local 



Inter- 
nat}.onal 



C,\e light; (up to to 

3000:iO aircraft 2J00 
for s:Ball com- 
muni ties or ur- 
ban areas. 

Airrjorlis for lar- 2300 

ger (?2OO0#-15,0OO^;) to 

aircraft in non- 3000 
scheduled flying 
activities. 

Airr.iortB to serve 3OOO 

certificated fee- to 
der airlines. 

Airports to serve 35 

smaller cities on to 

airline trunk ^1-200 
routes. 

Airports at impor- ^^200 

tant cities or to 

junction points ^MO 
on trunk routes. 

Airports serving 5000 

aircr-:5.ft making to 

long non-gtep 59^0 
dofT! e s t Ic ri i ght s , 

Air-oorto termin- 5900 

ating lon^" inter- to 

na'cional flights ,000 



200 



230 



300 
hoc 



^00 



500 



f;00 



75^ 



100 



150 



150 



1!30 



20c 



30* 



Ho 



60 



3 ■'J pi 



v„,ng 



fooo 

1.0 



^00 



4. 

standard oj?10Q. Air craft per Aii-'por t 

Smith, Edgar H., Airport Planning Consxiltant, GAA. 

Planning; Urban Air>por'tay Western City idagazin©. Fob. 1945 
pp 12, 15. 

"ir tho ii.atior>al total were distributod ovonly on th© basis 
of population, this (hypothetical) metropolitan area may have 600 pri- 
vately ownod aircraft three years after tlxe war, Tho problem is how 
meXLj airports a hov/ big, and how located with reapecfc to each other (and 

with respect to the rest of the coioitoinlty) will be needed? lot us 

assume that our hypothetical city has e. major airport, designed to 
accommodate transport types. The e;cperienca of the airlines lias been 
that 60 plane movements per hour (30 landings and 30 takeoff 8 ) ia about 
Che ma.xlimm capacity for a sin::5le runway layout. That is one minute 
headway between flights and presupposes that about the sane sort of 
equipment, operated by highly skilled personnel, will be used by each. 
Many municipal airports at the present time carry on mixed operations. 
For many cities, where airline schedules are not expected to reach 
the peak ho-jp capacity of the airport this will probably continue to 
work r©asongi.bly well* Lot us assume that to be the case here. We can 
assume then that the existing major airport will absorb 100 of our ex- 
pected total 60C private planes. That will leave 500 to be provided Tor. 

"Most airplanes of the private owner type can operate safely 
from a. Glass I or Class II airport. Either class may be dovoloped on n 
quarter-section of land. At sea level conditions such a site will pro- 
vide landing strips of sufficient length for these types and a landing 
area large enough to handle a peak hour operating about 75 plane -nov©- 
msnts. There would be enough building area to hangar about 100 planeo . 
vVhen necessary to acconiinodate more, i.t is bettor to provide an addition- 
al airport rather than to expand the first. To handle on a sinfrle air- 



Fhiladolphia City ,x^ir^. Co^nUsXon J^^ 



•Ivat 



.loO r5ri-/ate Ovvricr or basmess 
■'8 or tv/c fiyini: schools and not ovar 
cy-rrisr cr faedoi- operatioris per he 

M a.'^.o ' rp.ism capacity: single runway syBta.m"--not ovsr . 

:t' opor-atlc-ns per peak houx^ or 12 inst-^ ' 
r\e^'^- hour.- 

'T'cinna^ Piannln,;- Commission. Aj£P££H-J£LMl®--:^Si;^ 

;> 55 

■"The Ij^test info rsncAt ion from' the Civil Aeronautics Adninis 

jn iri:^ic.:.i:.3c5 ibO private oian^as as triw rn^^xlrn--:-! ..-.r^..^-. . : 

"or each field. 

of J02^.M££ilSi^JlS^MS^£ii 

Hegional Plan A^isoci ation, Inc^Kois/ Yorii CAty. Mili^:"^- . t hlL- 
1947 p . 54 

Report of the Regional Airport ZovSerence on its plai* f^r devo... 
,.,nt of an airport system for the New Yorlc Metropolitan he;'ion. 
-on tha oasis of 200 plan-33 psr flo-^D •-•^r.mrt. 6c>vUed 
Crcm liraltatioriG of the probable peak hour loaa ana .pv^c^.^ u.r 

.honld be the equivalent of 130 local airports to servico t 
.umber of planes. Somn r^io 3e':-:.-^'.ry -dr-^ortn ^-it^ 
of part of this aeraard, and some of the locai porLS v;a.i 
.oacity load. 

■ "About 100 mo/emuvtb per loi^ is the peak Irr.H ri" « 
away airports A peak hour of 100 would normally ^oan appro,- 
.lanes per airport The n^ure of SOO is based on th 
tho' greatest rush psrlo-^.^, t.h;.^ wouiil Ov':--r -nr^M. 
. -nmer holidayt^ and weekends, could ha spread ove. 



■iQVutsd structure wnich can ;.)e oreco. 



and 200 feot wxdo- -he arxa o.. 

^rr^n -:oT the SuLrcraft so that, after iar. the^ 
-y. ouz Qi .no -.vay and =50 down to storage v-c-'^ded b- - lower 
of sufricient area to park 450 squall id.rcrf^I i ^^^^ - -^ ■^'^ 
in the center.'' 

Piirk^ (Oliver L. . "Prasentation o f tti'i iKA>A^ A^.rpor- _ ^. 

Aeronautic is sr. 

hor believe that 450 airplane , titute about the 

■^r any one of thes. ^.rpark , , '-t-ooUtan rro-- 
.raffic that can bs safely n&iiQLi.o o.. 
^.e clear r maybe the : would be only 50 cr 

..:.-.c?.toc- 150 typo 

H-'.rplar - 

p .-..^v., . periods -very ''^^ ^ 

.•jtretcj-*. A'£i.-5i ti i- 
.-, 2200- foot run^-:. ••• ■' 

, 3 often -iu-.i --^-'^ 
crip at t>ia same ^ 
ot ower '' 50 to 
over a perio: - 

r-ee or sale , 



.^ote: IrTthe instanco given, there was o 
traTfic, which consictcG 01 a nor^ 

Dilots flying ths same type of . =. ^ ^;,o 

ktlon took place over a "great period oi tima 

- ; this flying episode. 



I 



PROPERTY 

OF THE 

DEPARTMENT C ? CITY PLANNING 

^::TY r-- r^-T ^lA.NCI§CO 



PROPERTY 

OF.. THE 



DEPARTMENT OF CITY PLANNING 
AND COUNTY QF SAN FRANCISCO